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Age, SAPS 3 and female sex are associated with decisions to withdraw or withhold intensive care - Linda Block

  1. Mark NM, Rayner SG, Lee NJ, et al: Global variability in withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in the intensive care unit: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med 2015; 41:1572-1585.
  2. Sprung CL, Woodcock T, Sjokvist P, et al: Reasons, considerations, difficulties and documentation of end-of-life decisions in European intensive care units: the ETHICUS Study. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34:271-277.
  3. Hoel H, Skjaker SA, Haagensen R, Stavem K. Decisions to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment in a Norwegian intensive care unit. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2014;58(3):329-36.
  4. Skjaker SA, Hoel H, Dahl V, Stavem K. Factors associated with life-sustaining treatment restriction in a general intensive care unit. PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0181312.
  5. Guidet B, Flaatten H, Boumendil A, Morandi A, Andersen FH, Artigas A, et al. Withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapy in older adults (>/= 80 years) admitted to the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med. 2018;44(7):1027-38.

Uppföljning efter intensivvård

  1. Azoulay E, Vincent J-L, Angus DC, et al. Recovery after critical illness: putting the puzzle together—a consensus of 29. Crit Care. 2017;21:296.
  2. Ringdal M, Rose L. Discourse Recovery After Critical Illness: The Role of Follow-up Services to Improve Psychological Well-Being. CJNR. 2012;44(1):7–17.
  3. Myhren H, Ekeberg O, Toien K, et al. Posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression symptoms in patients during the first year post intensive care unit discharge. Crit Care. 2010;14(1): R14.
  4. Harvey MA, Davidson JE. (2016). Postintensive care syndrome: Right Care, Right Now….and Later, Crit Care Med. 2016;44(2):381-5.
  5. Jonasdottir RJ, Klinke ME, Jonsdottir H. (2015). Integrative review of nurse-led follow-up after discharge from the ICU. J Clin Nurs. 2016;25:20–37.
  6. Orwelius L, Nilsson M, Nilsson E et al. The Swedish RAND-36 Health Survey - reliability and responsiveness assessed in patient populations using Svensson’s method for paired ordinal data. J Patient Rep Outcomes. 2018;2:4-10.


 Q1 - Följer riktlinje för svensk intensivvård

1. Rhodes A, Ferdinande P, Flaatten H, et al. The variability of critical care bed numbers in Europe. Intensive Care Med 2012;38:1647–53

Betydelse av justering för faktorer vid jämförelse av dödlighet

I. Rydenfelt K, Engerström L, Walther S, et al: In-hospital vs. 30-day mortality in the critically ill - a 2-year Swedish intensive care cohort analysis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2015; 59:846–858

II. Engerström L, Kramer AA, Nolin T, et al: Comparing time-fixed mortality prediction models and their effect on ICU performance metrics using the Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3. Crit Care Med 2016; 44:e1038–e1044

III. Engerström L, Nolin T, Mårdh CL, et al: Impact of Missing Physiologic Data on Performance of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 Risk-Prediction Model. Crit Care Med 2017; 45:2006–2013

IV. Engerström L, Freter W, Sellgren J, Sjöberg F, Fredrikson M, Walther S: Development and validation of a model for the prediction of 30-day mortality on admission to the intensive care unit after cardiac and cardiovascular surgery.

Inga tecken på ökad risk för hjärtdöd efter sepsis

1. Wright JC, Plenderleith L, Ridley SA. Long-term survival following intensive care: subgroup analysis and comparison with the general population. Anaesthesia 2003; 58: 637-42.

2. Cuthbertson BH, Elders A, Hall S, Taylor J, Maclennan G, Mackirdy F, Mackenzie SJ. Mortality and quality of life in the five years after severe sepsis. Crit Care 2013; 17: R70.

3. Dalager-Pedersen M, Sogaard M, Schonheyder HC, Nielsen H, Thomsen RW. Risk for myocardial infarction and stroke after community-acquired bacteremia: a 20-year population-based cohort study. Circulation 2014; 129: 1387-96.

4. Kaynar AM, Yende S, Zhu L, Frederick DR, Chambers R, Burton CL, Carter M, Stolz DB, Agostini B, Gregory AD, Nagarajan S, Shapiro SD, Angus DC. Effects of intra-abdominal sepsis on atherosclerosis in mice. Crit Care 2014; 18: 469.

5. Prescott HC, Osterholzer JJ, Langa KM, Angus DC, Iwashyna TJ. Late mortality after sepsis: propensity matched cohort study. BMJ 2016; 353: i2375.



  1. Mark NM, Rayner SG, Lee NJ, Curtis JR. Global variability in withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in the intensive care unit: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med [Internet]. 2015 Sep 23;41(9):1572–85. Available from:
  2. Sprung CL, Rusinova K, Ranzani OT. Variability in forgoing life-sustaining treatments: reasons and recommendations. Intensive Care Med. 2015;41(9):1679–81. 
  3. Curtis JR, Engelberg RA, Teno JM. Understanding variability of end-of-life care in the ICU for the elderly. Intensive Care Med [Internet]. 2017 Jan 31;43(1):94–6. Available from:
  4. Ferrand E, Robert R, Ingrand P, Lemaire F, French LATAREA Group. Withholding and withdrawal of life support in intensive-care units in France: a prospective survey. French LATAREA Group. Lancet (London, England) [Internet]. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):9–14. Available from:
  5. HOEL H, SKJAKER SA, HAAGENSEN R, STAVEM K. Decisions to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment in a Norwegian intensive care unit. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand [Internet]. 2014 Mar;58(3):329–36. Available from:
  6. Kirchhoff KT, Anumandla PR, Foth KT, Lues SN, Gilbertson-White SH. Documentation on withdrawal of life support in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Am J Crit Care [Internet]. 2004 Jul;13(4):328–34. Available from:
  7. Jensen HI, Ammentorp J, Ørding H. Withholding or withdrawing therapy in Danish regional ICUs: frequency, patient characteristics and decision process. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 

Sepsis 2018

  1. Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, Shankar-Hari M, Annane D, Bauer M, Bellomo R, Bernard GR, Chiche JD, Coopersmith CM et al: The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 2016, 315(8):801-810.
  2. Brink M, Cronqvist J, Fagerberg A, Kurland L, Lindgren P, Lipcsey M, Okas M, Petersson J: Nu gäller Sepsis-3 för definitioner och diagnostiska kriterier. Läkartidningen. 2018;115:E3W9
  3. Wilhelms S, Walther S, Huss F, Sjöberg F: Severe sepsis in the ICU is often missing in hospital discharge codes. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 61 (2017) 186–193
  4. Royal College of Physicians. National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2: Standardising the assessment of acute-illness severity in the NHS. Updated report of a working party. London: RCP, 2017.

Uppföljning efter intensivvård med RAND-36